Russia's emerging place. The Eurasian hydrocarbon energy complex
The key bilateral energy relationship, without which the Eurasian hydrocarbon complex would not have acquired its present structure, is the Turkmenistan-Russia connection, particularly Russia’s eff ective monopoly of export options for Turkmenistan’s natural gas. Robert Cutler argues that the issues structuring the bilateral and multilateral international energy relationships in Russia’s geo-economic relations with Europe, Central Eurasia, and China, have been the directions of export of Turkmenistani natural gas and also Kazakhstani crude oil. Increasingly acute competition between Russian and prospective non-Russian routes is the distinguishing feature of the present conjuncture.