This research is to investigate the circulation of books and other writings in pre-modern Korea and in particular the 19th century, and the impact this had on the knowledge and concept of knowledge of Korean scholars in that era. In this way I want to explore the expansion of intellectual horizons and gauge the degree of recognition that new types of knowledge gained. The 19th century was in various ways the end of an era. The Chosŏn dynasty was on its last feet and Korea, which was in decline in that particular period, stepped into the modern world. In this transitional phase, perceptions of the world and philosophical views of the ways in which the world should be approached by Korean intellectuals had to be revised and re-assessed. This all led to a remarkable cultural situation where a huge flood of information became available to Korean academic society. A huge quantity of books of various kinds circulated throughout Korea and with that a significant number of book collectors appeared. The intellectuals of that period showed great enthusiasm to absorb a wide range of all kinds of new knowledge entered the East Asian region from other parts of the world as well, mainly from Europe but also from elsewhere. This research is to investigate the circulation of books and other writings in the 19th century, and the impact this had on the perception of the world to the Korean scholars and the way they perceived the concept of other individuals and in order to understand and realize their own identities.